Foreword : basic rule of rugby. It is forbidden to pass the ball in hand to a teammate in front of you or throw the ball in hand in front of you.
Ruck : static phase following a plating. Supporters must come from their camp (same imaginary line) and stay on their supports – standing – to recover the ball, picking it up or pushing in the axis.
Melee : Static phase organized following a forward. Both packs compete against the referee’s commands. We must push in the axis and heel the ball. A team may choose to make a scrum instead of a free kick or a penalty in its favor.
Button : when the ball goes out of touch. At 5 meters from the touch line, the players line up (from 2 to 7 players) and the hooker throws the ball in the axis of the alignment. The jumpers can be lifted by their teammates (lifters). A touch can be played quickly if the ball is recovered before going into the set: the player can pass to a teammate or himself beyond the 5-meter line, in the axis or to his side .
Penalty : follows a “serious” fault. Offside, anti-gambling, bad action, etc. The defense is automatically placed at 10 meters and must not intervene if the attacking team plays fast. Otherwise, it goes back 10 meters more. Possibility to play by hand, to type in touch with the right to throw the ball, choose a melee with the introduction or aim the posts to score 3 points.
Free kick : sanction a technical foul, often after a scrum or a touch (bad position in melee or bad introduction, fault in the alignment or team in excess in touch …). In its 22 meters, it is obtained by shouting “mark” during an aerial balloon recovered from volley. Defense at 10 meters, we can play by hand, ask for a scrum. Ability to type in touch, but without benefit of the throw. You can not aim at the poles to score points.
Drop (drop-goal): Kick fell. In the course of the game, the player (often number 10) drops the ball just in front of him and hits him in the direction of the poles as soon as he bounces to try to score 3 points.
Attempt : flatten the ball in the opponent’s in-goal by wearing it or throwing on it after a kick. The base ! 5 points. Gives the right to attempt a transformation, on the same imaginary vertical line to the goal line.
Transformation : kick set following a test. Worth 2 points. Beware, opponents have the right to run towards the player to counter the ball as soon as he started his run.
Forwards : the 8 players of the “pack”, the “big”, the beefy. They participate in the static phases organized for the winning of the ball (the keys and the scrums). In the game, it is they who have a leading role in the rucks, the open scrums (or spontaneous) and they defend around the static phases, closer to the groupings. They try to cross the defensive line in strength, in the axis or near the regroupings. Organized in 3 lines, which correspond to their position in closed (or ordered) scrum.
1st line : two pillars and a hooker in the middle. The smallest, but the strongest pack. The pillars stall the scrum, especially the right pillar, often the most powerful. The hooker coordinates the entry into scrum, thrust and heels the ball introduced backwards, towards the feet of his number 8 (3rd line).
2nd line : the biggest and the strongest of the pack. There are two of them. Push hard in melee, jump in touch, “clean” in rucks, push in groupings. It is they who do the work of undermining, the work of the shadow.
3rd line : a number 8 in the middle, powerful and technical, who has the right to pick up the ball in closed scrum to cross the line further. Two 3rd wing lines, a little lighter. Rugby decathletes, the liaison between forwards and three-quarters in the game, the biggest tacklers, able to jump in touch. Also push on the pillars in closed scrum to stall the whole.
Three quarters : the 7 players of the back lines. The “gazelles”, faster and lighter than the pack players. Use the width of the field to cross the opposing line of defense. They are the only ones – except for a very rare exception – to use footwork to advance to the opposing side or to put pressure on the opponent by getting touches near the opposing goal line.
Demis ( melee and opening ): the 9th and the 10th, the hinge. The 9 guide the pack, introduced in melee, animates the game. Systematic relay after each contact phase to give back the ball to the fronts to go upwind or eject the ball for three-quarters, most often giving the ball to his half opening. The opening half, number 10, is the conductor of the rear lines, the strategist,
the one who launches the attacks, announces the combinations to surprise the opponent; he can play foot to the opponent’s side to recover the ball or put pressure, tap candles, drops. He is often the scorer of the team. He also commands the defensive ascents of the three-quarter line.
Centers : 12th and 13th. Strong, fast players, able to play foot or hand. Big tacklers. They are the ones who compete in the middle of the field, to cross or to free space for their wingers. Often supported by the 3rd line in the course of the game.
Ailiers : the 11th and the 14th. The most vivid and fast players, the finishers, the raisers. They usually stay along the sidelines, but may also be involved in midfield combinations. Help the back to defend when kicking opponents.
Back : the 15th, the last rampart. Last defender, versatile attacker when he integrates into the line of attack to bring the excess. Skillful on high balls and candles, with a good kick-off to put pressure on the other side or find touches. He is also often a scorer.
Yellow / red card: repeated technical fouls, bad gestures, brutalities … are sanctioned by yellow or red cards (two yellow cards equivalent to a red card). A player receiving a yellow card must leave the field for 10 minutes without being replaced. The red card is equivalent to a final expulsion from the field.